CCCTC-binding factor (zinc finger protein)
PDB ID : 2CT1
|Protein Family||beta-beta-alpha zinc fingers|
|Type||Pol II TF|
CTCF is a member of the BORIS + CTCF family and encodes a chromatin binding factor with 11 highly conserved zinc finger (ZF) domains. This nuclear protein uses different ZF domain combinations to bind a wide variety of DNA target sequences and proteins, and is an essential element involved in epigenetic regulation. Depending upon the context of the site, CTCF can bind a histone acetyltransferase (HAT)-containing complex and function as a transcriptional activator, or bind a histone deacetylase (HDAC)-containing complex and function as a transcriptional repressor. If CTCF is bound to a transcriptional insulator element, it can block communication between enhancers and upstream promoters, thereby regulating imprinted expression. It preferentially interacts with unmethylated DNA, and thus maintains methylation-free zones by preventing the spreading of CpG methylation (which prevents CTCF binding to target sites). CTCF plays a role in sister chromatid cohesion, oocyte and preimplantation embryo development, chromatin remodeling, long-range chromatin looping, and X-chromosome inactivation. CTCF mutations are associated with invasive breast cancers, prostate cancers, and Wilms' tumors. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene.
ENCODE ChIP-seq Datasets
Indicated in the matrix are the numbers of datasets specified by lab and cell line; when the number is greater than 1, multiple ChIP-seq experiments have been performed, some upon treatments. Click the numbers to download the data files on ChIP-seq peaks, alignments, etc.
Average Profiles of Modified Histones around the Summit of ChIP-seq Peaks
Average histone modification profiles are shown for the [-2 kb, +2 kb] window around the summits of TF ChIP-seq peaks, separately for peaks that are proximal ([-1kb, +1kb]) to an annotated transcript (dashed lines) start sites and for peaks that are distal (more than 1kb) to all annotated transcripts (solid lines) start sites. Proximal profiles are arranged such that the transcriptional direction of the nearest transcript is toward the right. Histone modification data were generated by the Broad team, using antibodies to pull down modified histones followed by deep sequencing of the genomic DNA associated with the modified histones. Only histone modification data from the same cell line as the TF ChIP-seq data are shown.
Mouse over a curve to reveal its identity. Mouse over a histone modification in the legend to show its curves and gray out other histone modifications in the figures. Click a histone modification in the legend to toggle on/off its curve in all figures. Click the “Proximal” or “Distal” button in the legend to show only the average histone modification profiles anchored around ChIP-seq peaks that are proximal or distal to annotated transcripts.